The Electromagnetics of Theory C and Theory N

An elucidation and extension of Ivor Catt’s Theory C(att) by Forrest Bishop


The purposes of this website include refuting the old, conventional electromagnetic theory (Theory N), independently from that introducing and extending a replacement theory of electricity and magnetism (Theory C), and of preserving the ancient record.


“’Theory C’ is one of the greatest advances in the history of science, and is experiencing the same kind of obstruction as that experienced by Lavoisier's oxidation, getting rid of phlogiston, and the attempt to get rid of caloric.”—Ivor Catt, Sept 8, 2005


We begin with the most important electromagnetics paper of the 20th Century, all two pages of it

at and at
"This is the historic first disclosure, in December, 1978, of research findings by Catt, Davidson and Walton."

“The flaw in this model [Theory N —FB] is revealed when we notice that the electric current entered the capacitor at one point only on the capacitor plate. We must then explain how the electric charge flowing down the wire suddenly distributes itself uniformly across the whole capacitor plate. We know that this cannot happen since the charge cannot flow out across the plate at a velocity in excess of the velocity of light.” –Catt, Davidson, Walton, 1978




Some animations of how ‘electricity’ works. I did these at Ivor Catt’s house in May, 2006, with Ivor’s consultation. I have never seen anything like this before.

Uploaded May 5th, 2007



“The Catt Question”

“’Electricity’ is the last of the medaeval fluids. Its downfall came when mass was attributed to it.”—Ivor Catt, Sept 8, 2005

   "The Catt Question" is in regard to a two-wire transmission line in conventional electromagnetic theory (Theory N). See figures 1, 2, and 3 at
   The wires may be any length, as the load at the other end does not enter into the Question. We are looking at the time period between the closing of the two switches of Figure 3, and before the 'electricity' can reach the load. Notice that a battery and two wires are a two-wire transmission line.
   Two switches are used simply to make the visualization easier. When the (DPST) switches are closed, 'electricity' from the battery will move at the speed of light toward the right. A 'current', 'i', moves in one direction on one wire. An equal and opposite electric current, '-i', moves the other direction, according to Figure 1. These each cause magnetic fields to encircle the wires as shown.
   Behind this transient electricity wavefront, we measure a voltage, equal to the battery voltage, under Theory N. To right of the wavefront there is no voltage difference (assume the wires were e.g. previously grounded or whatever). Therefore, there is an electric field, expressed either as flux, or strength, or displacement, between the two wires to the left of the wavefront. This is shown in Figure 1 as the arrows marked 'D' (for displacement). The feet of the arrows terminate on the positive charges, '+q', on the upper wire. The heads of the arrows terminate on the negative charges, '-q', on the lower wire. This is standard practice. Figure 2 is a qualitative end-view of the electric field of Figure 1, behind the wavefront. Notice in particular, that is does not matter what the ramp-up profile of the wavefront was- maybe it's a step, or a triangle, or something else. In all cases, we will see instantaneous fields as in Figure 2, at each point along the wires in Figure 1.
   In order for this transverse electric field to exist, there has to be an excess of negative electric charge transported toward the battery on the upper wire, and an excess of negative charge transported toward the wavefront on the lower wire. Otherwise, there would not be any possible voltage difference between the two wires.

The Catt Question:
Where does the negative charge come from on the lower wire?

Some net-something has to move at the speed of light, or else something has to violate Gauss.




Some books authored by Ivor Catt and his colleagues. These are out of print and were not previously available on the web.

Ivor Catt may add from time to time: “21st Century comments on my books”, at-


Electromagnetic Theory, Vol. 1 is at-

“There is far less knowledge and understanding of electromagnetic theory today, and this includes those in the highest places,

than an outsider could possibly suppose.” Uploaded on June 6, 2006


Electromagnetic Theory, Vol. 2 is at-

Uploaded on June 7, 2006

“This volume contains the first disclosure of the most important

advance in electromagnetic theory for a hundred years.”


Digital Electronic Design, Vol. 1 is at-

Uploaded June, 2006


Digital Electronic Design, Vol. 2 is at-

“Volume 2 contains more practical advice on day to day digital design, along with some disclosures of fundamental advances in the art.” Uploaded on June 9, 2006


Oliver Heaviside, the Man, by G.F.C Searle, is at-

“The late G.F.C. Searle, F.R.S., who was the friend of Oliver Heaviside for 33 years, wrote this, the only lengthy Heaviside biography, in 1950.” Edited by Ivor Catt. First published by in January, 1987. Uploaded on June 9,2006


Death of Electric Current by Ivor Catt

A rare book collecting the early work of Theory C. (not uploaded)




Some Works of Forrest Bishop’s


Philosophy, Assertions, Hypotheses and Predictions of Theories N and C


The relation between the principle electrodynamic constants (not uploaded yet)


Impedance Replaces Electric Charge in Electromagnetic Units (not uploaded yet)


TEM waves in a waveguide create the illusion of TE, TM modes

An important example of ‘Maxwell’s’ Equations yielding an incorrect result (one of many). This is close to Theory C’s Contrapuntal Capacitor. (not uploaded yet)


Maxwell’s Displacement Current Violates Kirchhoff’s First Principle: “What goes in must come out”


Look Through the Telescope

The falsification of Special Relativity and the Big Bang cosmology




* A word or phrase placed in single ‘quotes’ is often used herein to signify its invalidity. “”Double Quotes in Context” often signify concepts in natural philosophy, or science.


Image processing and webpages are by Forrest Bishop.

This main page revision May 5th, 2007